This coin is a French silver denier (Crusader Coin) minted in circa 1163-1201AD.
The denier was a French coin created by Charlemagne in the Early Middle Ages. It was introduced together with an accounting system in which twelve deniers equaled one sou and twenty sous equaled on livre. This system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe’s currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish denero, and the Portuguese dinheiro. The name “denier” was derived from the name of the Roman coin, the denarius.
During the 13th century, Crusaders from throughout Europe masses their armies in an effort to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. Small coins were minted in great quantity to pay the troops, and they ultimately because the standard currency for the common people. Because these Crusader coins were so popular and widely accepted, they continued to be minted for three centuries.